Sunday, 29 October 2017

IBPS Reasoning Preparation Tips & How to Crack Easily? (Complete Guide) Prelims and Mains PO



IBPS Reasoning Preparation Tips & How to Crack Easily? (Complete Guide) - Prelims and Mains PO

Reasoning is a common subject for all banking exams. With the announcement of IBPS PO recruitment, candidates start preparation for IBPS Exam. Here you will find the reasoning syllabus of IBPS exam, IBPS reasoning tricks (topic-wise) and more. Moreover, if the candidate understands the weightage given to each topic, systematically categorize between topics that make them clear where they need to focus on to score good marks. Additionally, this will also allow you to judge which topics having more weightage.

What is Reasoning?


This is most scoring subject in IBPS exam as compared to all other subjects. Reasoning ability is the action of thinking about something in a logical and in a sensible way. Reasoning is one of the most grounded section of the exam to test the judgment and different attitudes identified with mind sharpness and logical capacity of the candidate.

Reasoning ability tests thinking the ability that how fast and accurate the candidate is. And to score good marks in reasoning exam, an aspirant must practice IBPS reasoning questions, again and again, to speed up. Follow the IBPS Preparation tips to crack the IBPS PO Exam easily.

IBPS Reasoning Exam Paper Pattern for Clerk, Probationary Officer, Specialist Officer and RRB
IBPS Reasoning Section Questions Marks
IBPS Clerk Reasoning Syllabus 40 40
IBPS PO Reasoning Syllabus 50 50
IBPS Specialist Officer Reasoning Syllabus 50 50
IBPS RRB Reasoning Syllabus 40 50

IBPS Reasoning Syllabus- Topic Wise


The first question comes in candidate mind is what to prepare? A right direction is very important and helpful in preparation for reasoning test. First, a candidate needs to check the complete syllabus first this help in finding what topics are relevant and how many questions will come from the particular topic.


Here is the list of Verbal Reasoning Test, Non-verbal reasoning test, and Analytical reasoning test.

        
Verbal Reasoning Test Analogy
Classification
Number Series
Coding Decoding
Input Output
Blood Relations
Direction Sense Test
Logical Venn Diagrams
Alphabet Test
Sitting Arrangements
Mathematical Operations
Arithmetical Reasoning
Inserting the Missing Character
Number
Ranking and Time Sequence Test
Syllogism
Logical Sequence of Words
Alphanumeric Sequence Test
Puzzle Test
Non-Verbal Reasoning Test Mirror Image
Water Image
Paper Folding
Paper Cutting
Counting the Number of Figures
Dice Problems
Five Figures Series
Missing Figure Series
Analogy
Classification
Analytical Reasoning Test Statement and Conclusions
Statement & Arguments
Statement & Assumptions
Cause and Effect
Courses of Action
Inference

Check IBPS PO Exam Pattern and Reasoning Syllabus

Preparation of Reasoning for IBPS Exam 

How to prepare for IBPS Exam? Preparation of Reasoning for IBPS Exam is not an easy task but by following the reasoning tricks below, a candidate will get good marks in the paper.

Proper Study Material

A candidate must have proper reasoning test preparation material as IBPS 2017 Reasoning Syllabus, important notes, books etc. This helps you in making the proper study plan and save time for searching them here and there.

Focussed

Prepare for IBPS Reasoning exam paper as subject wise. Thoroughly prepare one topic at a time and don't mix other topics with that. With this, you will understand the topic in less time.

Learn Formulas and Tables

This is very important to learn formulas and tables for the preparation of reasoning exam because reasoning test is based on formulas and methods, this will help in solving the question in less time and correctly. Without formulas and methods, you will consume more time to attempt the questions.

Exam Basics

Read the questions carefully, always at the competitive exam read the question carefully what it says because when you understand the questions only then you can easily give the right answer.

Try to solve the questions with formulas, methods, and tricks. If you start experimenting with questions it will kill your valuable time and maybe you mark the wrong answer.

Negative marking, this is not compulsory to make guesses to attempt all the questions. If you don't know the answer you can leave the question because there is a negative marking in IBPS Exam. Must check, Negative Marking guidelines for IBPS Exam

Don't spend much time in solving the particular question and always divide time for all the section. It is recommended that first attempt those questions which you can solve quickly and sure rather than making long calculations for those you don't have the idea.

Practice makes perfect
Always remember this rule, and practice more and more. Candidates need to practice IBPS reasoning mock test as much as they can. These tests include questions regarding Critical Reasoning, Analytical Reasoning, and Reasoning Data Sufficiency. And by practicing and solving relevant ibps reasoning preparation puzzles will help you in improving solving skills and thereby contributes in enhancing your reasoning power and increase speed to solve the questions.


Preparation Strategy for IBPS PO Reasoning

1. Coded/Mathematical Inequalities

For the preparation of mathematical inequalities, a candidate should know what each symbol means. Coded/ Mathematical inequalities are important for competitive exams like IBPS Clerk, SBI Clerk, SSC CGL, Placement Aptitude, IBPS PO, SBI PO, NICL AO, LIC AAO, SBI Associate Clerk, SBI Associate PO, CAT, and others.

Coded Inequality questions are the advanced version of Mathematical inequality questions. To solve coded inequality in the reasoning section of competitive exams some operators are used like (>, >, ≤, ≤, and =). In mathematical equalities, operator ‘>’ and ‘<’ has the highest priority. This is followed by ‘≥’ and ‘≤’. On the other hand, ‘=’ has the least priority. So if a statement is A > B ≥ C = D then A > C, D because ‘>’ has the highest priority. B ≥ D because ≥ has priority more than ‘=’.

Example of Coded Inequality in Reasoning

Directions: In the following questions, the symbols δ, @, ©, %, and ⋆ are used with the following meaning as illustrated below.

‘A © B’ means ‘A is not smaller than B’.
‘A % B’ means ‘A is neither smaller than nor equal to B ’.
‘A ⋆ B’ means ‘A is neither greater than nor equal to B’.
‘A δ B’ means ‘A is not greater than B’.
‘A @ B’ means ‘A is neither greater than nor smaller than B’.

Now in each of the following questions assuming the given statements to be true, find which of the four conclusions I, II, II, and IV given below them is/are definitely true and give your answer accordingly.

Statements:
P δ T, T @ R, R © O, O % K

Conclusions:
I. R @ P
II. R % P
III. K ⋆ T
IV. O δ T

1) Only either I or II is true
2) Only III and IV are true
3) Only either I or II and III are true
4) Only either I or II and IV are true
5) Only either I or II and III and IV are true

Follow the steps given below to simplify the process.

Steps Involved in Solving Coded Inequality in Reasoning

Step 1:  Make Decoding Table.

The easiest way is to first make a table 










NOTE: Elements used in question are A and B so we have added A and B in the table.

TIP: Sometimes, to make questions more complicated, reverse relations may be given as:
‘A * B’ means ‘B is not smaller than A’.
So, here we will write B in the first row and A in the last row.

Step 2: Add Symbols to Table









Step 3: Start decoding symbols one by one. Then add decoded operator into the table.
Here symbols are:
© → not smaller than → means greater than or equal to → ‘≥’
% → neither smaller than nor equal to → means greater than → ‘>’
⋆ → neither greater than nor equal to → means smaller than → ‘<’
δ → not greater than → means smaller than or equal to → ‘≤’
@ → neither greater than nor smaller than → means equal to → ‘=’
So our decoding table becomes:

Step 3: Start decoding symbols one by one. Then add decoded operator into the table.

Here symbols are:

© → not smaller than → means greater than or equal to → ‘≥’
% → neither smaller than nor equal to → means greater than → ‘>’
⋆ → neither greater than nor equal to → means smaller than → ‘<’
δ → not greater than → means smaller than or equal to → ‘≤’
@ → neither greater than nor smaller than → means equal to → ‘=’

So the decoding table becomes:









Use this decoding table to solve the actual questions.

Step 4: 









Statements: P δ T, T @ R, R © O, O % K
Decoded statements: P ≤ T, T = R, R ≥ O, O > K

Step 5: Combine Decoded Statements

Combined statement will be: P ≤ T = R ≥ O > K

Step 6: Conclude Individually

Look at conclusions one by one, decode each conclusion using the Decoding Table. Then check whether the conclusion follows or not.









Conclusion I: R @ P → R = P
Now from the combined statement we get, P ≤ T = R.
According to priority level, we get, P ≤ R.
Thus R = P is false.

Conclusion II:  R % P → R > P
From the combined statement we get, P ≤ T = R.
Thus again we get P ≤ R.
So R > P is false.

But we know from the combined statement that P ≤ R. Hence either conclusion I or II has to be true as they form the complementary pair.

TIP: Whenever there are 2 conclusions having the same 2 elements and both conclusions are false, always check for the complementary pair.
Complementary means combining in such a way as to enhance or emphasize the qualities of each other or another.
Like, ‘<’, ‘>’ and ‘=’ form complementary pairs for any case. This is because there cannot be any relation other than these if these three cases are included.

Conclusion III:  K ⋆ T → K < T
Now from the combined statement, we get T = R ≥ O > K.
This can be shortened as T ≥ O > K.
Now according to priority, > has more priority than ≥. So the final relation between T and K will be T > K.
Thus the conclusion is true.

Conclusion IV: O δ T → O ≤ T
Now from the combined statement we get, T = R ≥ O.
According to priority, ≥ has more priority than =. So the final relation between T and O will be T ≥ O.
Thus the conclusion is true.

So, our final answer will be, conclusion III, IV and either conclusion I or conclusion II follows.

This trick will significantly reduce the time taken to solve problems on coded inequality in reasoning sections of all competitive exams.

Mathematical Inequality appears mostly in Reasoning section of competitive exams and it forms the basis for the more complex coded inequality questions. Questions appear for up to 5-10 marks in IBPS Clerk, SBI Clerk, SSC CGL, SBI PO, IBPS PO and other exams. Learn how you can quickly solve Mathematical Inequality in Reasoning.

Let's have a look at the basics:

Symbols & Meanings of Mathematical Inequalities

Symbol Its meaning Example
> Greater than A > B → A is greater than B
< Less than A < B → A is less than B
Greater than or equal to A ≥ B → A is greater than or equal to B
Less than or equal to A ≤ B → A is greater than or equal to B
= Equal to A = B → A is equal to B

2. Syllogisms 

In Reasoning, Syllogism is one main topic of Verbal or Logical Reasoning. Generally, 5-6 questions are asked on this topic alone in competitive exams like SBI PO, IBPS PO, SBI Clerk, IBPS Clerk, SBI Associate PO, CAT, IBPS RRB, SSC CGL, NICL AO, NIACL AO, LIC AAO, etc.

Syllogism is easy and scoring topic in reasoning if you have good command over it. Questions of syllogism consist some premises or statements and one or more conclusions derived from the given statements.

Statements: Some actors are singers. All the singers are dancers.
Conclusions:
Some actors are dancers.
No singer is actor.

A.    Only (1) conclusion follows
B.    Only (2) conclusion follows
C.    Either (1) or (2) follows
D.    Neither (1) nor (2) follows
E.    Both (1) and (2) follow

In such kinds of problems, you need to find out what will definitely be true, and what can be possibilities.

These kinds of problems can be easily solved by Venn Diagrams. While doing so, try to correlate the explanations with what you see in the diagrams.

Venn Diagrams
Venn Diagrams are a way to represent sets of objects and picturize the relations between a collection of objects as given in a set of statements. They are often shown as circles and labeled. It shows all the definite or logical relations between the collection of statements.



Definite Conclusions

Based on this statement alone, we can conclude some things definitely and some things as a possibility. Definite statements are those that are certainly true based on the statement(s) given. These are those that can most certainly be concluded on the basis of the Least Venn Diagram.

NOTE: The Least Venn Diagram shows minimal or least possible overlapping between two groups. These are the most common ways of representing the given statement. Each selection has its own unique Least Venn Diagram.

Possibilities

Possibilities are those that may be true but are not definite. They can be shown using either the Least Venn Diagram or Alternate Venn Diagrams. Alternate Diagrams are those Venn Diagrams that are not commonly used to depict that particular statement, but are also valid ways of representing the statement. Note that Alternate Venn Diagrams are not always correct all the time, but can often be useful in proving something wrong.

Selections

Four categories you must remember. These tell you how many objects have a certain attribute or how many you have selected. You can select:

All (i.e. you can select every object in the group.)
Some (i.e. you can select a few objects in the group.)
None (i.e. you can leave out all objects in the group.)
Some Not (i.e. you can leave out a few objects in the group.)

1. ALL

Statement:-  All P are Q
What does this mean? Every object of Type P is also an object of Type Q. You can pick any object in A and it will definitely lie in B.




Definite Conclusions Reasons
i. Some P are Q. If we select even some of the objects of Type P, they will still lie inside Q.
ii. Some Q are P. Some objects of Type Q are also of Type P – those that lie in both P and Q.

Definite Conclusions    Reasons
i. Some P are Q. If we select even some of the objects of Type P, they will still lie inside Q.
ii. Some Q are P. Some objects of Type Q are also of Type P – those that lie in both P and Q.

Some P are Q DOES NOT MEAN that some P are not Q because as seen above, there are no objects of Type P that are not of Type Q.




Possibilities Reasons
i. All Q are P. When all P are Q, and when all Q are P, clearly, the two groups are the same i.e. the two groups overlap completely.
ii. Some Q are not P. We do not know for sure if there are some Q that are not P. But there is a possibility of it.

Possibility 1

Possibility 2

2. SOME

Statement:- Some P are Q
That means, there are a few objects in P that are also in Q.




Definite Conclusions Reasons
Some Q are P. There are some objects of Type P that are of Type Q. Then definitely we can say that these Q are P.


Possibilty 1.

Possibilty 2

Possibility 3

Possibility 4





Possibilities
Reasons
i. All Q are P. Some P are Q can also mean that every object of type Q lies in P.
ii. Some P are not Q. We know that some P are definitely Q. There is a chance that there are some P that are not common with Q, and these will lie in the area outside Q, but inside P
iii. All P are Q. When all P are Q, it is then definite that whatever group of P you pick, it will definitely be in Q. So if all P are Q, then definitely some P are Q.
iv. Some Q are not P. Like in case ii, we know that some P are definitely Q. But there is a chance that there are some Q that are not common with P, and these will lie in the area outside P, but inside Q

3. NO 

Statement:- No P are Q. That means, when we are sure that there is nothing in P that is common with Q, we say that no P are Q.



Definite Conclusions Reasons
i. No Q are P. When there is nothing in common between P and Q, then no Q can be P.
ii. Some P are not Q. If no P is Q, then definitely we can also say that some P are not Q. This is because if we select any group of objects from P, then they will definitely not lie in Q.
iii. Some Q are not P. The reason is same as in case ii.
Possibilities Reasons
- There are no possibilities that can be drawn from this case. All conclusions are definite in relation to P and Q.

4. SAME NOT

Statement:- Some P are not Q
In this, we are sure that there are some objects of Type P that are not of Type Q




Definite Conclusions Reasons
- No definite conclusion can be drawn on the basis of this statement alone.






Possibilities Reasons
i. All Q are P. In the case where all Q are P, there could be some objects of Type P that lie outside Q. These P are not Q. So our statement that Some P are not Q holds true.
ii. Some P are Q.,
OR
Some Q are P
When we know that there is some overlap between P and B as shown above in Possibility 2 figure, and there are some objects that lie outside Q but inside P(shown as dashes in fig. above ), we can say that some P are not Q, and the statement holds true.
iii. Some Q are not P. When we have some overlap between P and Q, and there are some objects in P that don’t lie in Q and some objects in Q that don’t lie in P, we can see that both the statement and this possibility holds true.
iv. No P are Q
OR,
No Q are P.
When there is no object in common between P and Q, we can see that any group of objects of Type P you take will not lie in Q. So we can say that some P are not Q. Note that we are not saying that some P are Q.

Coding and Decoding

For the preparation of Coding and Decoding, pay attention to the numbers and alphabets in the given code. First check, whether the sequences in the questions are in an ascending or descending order. Then, look for rules or patterns that the questions might follow. This will give you definite answers due to conceptual understanding.

Coding Decoding is the fictitious Language problems seems hard but they are the easiest to solve. If you carefully read, you will find they are usually pretty straightforward and scoring. Questions of coding-decoding generally appear for 5 marks in almost all banking and other competitive exams. 

Coding is a process in which a word, a number, or a series of combination of words and numbers is expressed in a particular code or pattern based on various rules. You have to answer the questions based on these set of rules. And decoding is the process of (interpreting) deciphering the coded pattern and reverting it to its original form from the given codes. So, candidates are required to understand the logic behind the coding pattern and then apply this logic to find answers. 

Example of Coding-Decoding

1)  ‘You are welcome’ is coded as ‘tip ab as’,

2)  ‘He ate very sweet’ is coded as ‘an oh ap ol’,

3)  ‘What is sweet’ is coded as ‘ak da al’,

4)  ‘He welcome sweet people’ is coded as ‘do oh tip al’.

So what is code for each word? 

Step I:

Write words and their codes as given in the question in straight line with an arrow in middle. So we get,



Step II:

Find the common words and their corresponding codes. Encircle each pair with the same shape.

‘Welcome’ is a common word in 1st and 4th Its corresponding common code is ‘tip’ (as only ‘tip’ is common code in statement 1st and 4th) so we will make the square around ‘welcome’ and ‘tip’.
‘Sweet’ is the common word in 2nd, 3rd and 4th statement and its corresponding common code is ‘al’. So we will make an oval around ‘sweet’ and ‘al’.
‘He’ is the common word in 2nd and 4th statement and its corresponding common code is ‘oh’. So we make a triangle around ‘he’ and ‘oh’.
Note: ‘Sweet’ and its code ‘al’ is present in statement 2nd and 4th along with ‘he’ and its code ‘oh’. Don’t get confused. Code for ‘sweet’ will be ‘al’ as it is present in statement 3rd also. So read all statements before encircling.


Now we can tell each word and its corresponding code

welcome → tip
he → oh
sweet → al
people → do (only word and code left in statement 4)

Step III:

Code for ‘you’ and ‘are’ can be either ‘ab’ or ‘as’
Code for ‘ate’ and ‘very’ can be either ‘an’ or ‘ap’
Code for ‘what and ‘is’ can be either ‘ak’ or ‘da’
That means we cannot determine the exact code for ‘you’, ‘are’, ‘ate’, ‘very’, ‘what’ and ‘is’ as there are two possible codes for each word.

Tip: Code for word not given in question statement will be something different from codes given in question statements.

Seating Arrangement (Circular & Linear) 

In Circular sitting arrangement questions, questions of Uni- & Bi-directional problems on circular, square, rectangular, hexagonal tables and in Linear, questions of Single or Double rows facing each other/ away from each other/ in the same direction asked in the exam.
There are no tricks and shortcuts for this type of question, you just need to practice a lot. 

Circular arrangement questions are often asked in Banking exams, especially SBI PO and IBPS exams. Seating Arrangement puzzles are very lengthy but scoring and tricky to solve.

There are, primarily three types of questions asked under the circular arrangement.

I) Circular arrangement with people facing center of a table.
II) Circular arrangement with people facing outward of a table.
III) Circular arrangement with some people facing center of a table whereas some people facing outward

How to Solve Circular Arrangement

First, imagine yourself as one of the person's given in the question. Count how many people are mentioned in the question. Then draw a circle with those many lines. For example, if in the question, assume that it is given that there are eight friends A, B, C, D, E, F, and H sitting around a circle facing the center.




Imagine yourself at the position shown by the box. Now your left hand is the left side and right hand is the right side.
Now if the question says, A is third to the right of B, approach as follows:
Imagine yourself as B and place B at position





Now, A is third to the right of B.
The right of B is your right side.
So place A three places from B towards its right.



Now for the left side of A, you can use clockwise rotation. And for the right side of A use anticlockwise rotation. That means B is third to the left of A.






Let's take a Circular Arrangement Example:

Eight people P, Q, R, S, T, U, V, and W, are seated around a circular table facing each other. R is second to the right of P and third to the left of Q. Q is second to the left of V. S and V are diagonally opposite to each other. U is a neighbor of S. T is third to the left of W.




Steps to follow:
Read the whole information once.
Count the number of people given and draw the circle accordingly. Now in the question, 8 people are mentioned. So draw a circle with 8 lines facing inside.
What you can do here is indicate Left and Right sides with arrows with respect to bottom-most position.
And at last, get direct information. And imagine yourself as one of them and start plotting them with respect to you.

Now, What question says: R is second to the right of P and third to the left of Q. So imagine yourself as P and place yourself in the lowermost position as shown before.





1) R is second to the right of P.
Place R, second towards your right-hand side.



2) Then, R is second to the right of P.
So place R, second towards your right-hand side as follows:





3)  R is third to left of Q. i.e. Q is third to right of R. So, place Q accordingly.





4) Q is second to the left of V. i.e. V is second to the right of Q.
Now place V second place from Q in the anticlockwise direction.




5) S and V are diagonally opposite to each other.
That means S and V are exactly facing each other i.e. are diametrically opposite.





U is a neighbor of S.
As on one side of S, we already have R. That means U must take the only available place next to S.




At the end, T is third to the left of W. We have only two positions left. This condition is only possible when W is placed between P and R. And the final arrangement we get is:




Ordering and Ranking

Ordering and Ranking Arrangement is another important topic from the SBI PO, SBI Clerk, IBPS PO, IBPS Clerk, SSC, CAT and many other competitive exams point of view. Usually, 3-5 questions of Ordering and Ranking topic are asked in any exam from this topic. These questions can be easily cracked by following some simple shortcut tricks the questions in a matter of seconds.

Tricks are the only way to go about getting through the Reasoning section with ease and quickly and to boost your reasoning ability and to score good marks in the exam

Tips to follow

First, read the statement line by line and apply the cases as explained below.
Position can be from either side of row and rank is always from top or bottom of the row

Below are the different types of ordering & ranking arrangement questions are explained below with different examples.

Let's have a look:

Type 1
Total number of persons = {(sum of positions of same person from both sides i.e. left and right side) – 1} or;
Position of a person from opposite side = {(Total no. of persons – Position of same person from given side) +1}

For E.g., in a row of persons, position of A from left side of the row is 27th and position of A from right side of the row is 34th. Find total no. of persons in the row?

Solution:

Total no. of students = (Position of A from left + Position of A from right) -1

⇒Total no. of students = (27 + 34) – 1 = 61 – 1 = 60

Type 2

Total no. of persons = No. of persons after or before the given person in a row + Position of same person from the other side; or
No. of persons after or before the given person in a row = Total no. of persons – Position of same person from another side

For e.g. In a row of persons, position of A from left side of the row is 27th and there are 5 persons after A in the row. Find total no. of persons in the row?

Solution:

No. of persons in the row = Position of A from left + No. of persons after A
⇒ Total no. of persons = 27 + 5 = 32

When the positions of two persons are given from opposite ends and we know the total number of persons, then two cases arise when trying to determine the number of persons between these two persons

When there is no overlapping: i.e. the sum of positions of the two persons from opposite ends < total number of persons

When there is overlapping: i.e. the sum of positions of the two persons from opposite ends > total number of persons

Case i) No. of students between two different persons = Total no. of students – (Sum of positions of two different persons from opposite sides)

E.g.1)  In a row of 54 persons, A is 15th from the left side of the row and B is 20th from the right side of the row. Find the no. of persons sitting between A and B?

Solution: Here Sum of positions of A & B from opposite ends = 15 + 20 = 35 < Total no. of persons

∴ No. of persons between A & B = Total no. of students – (Position of A from left + Position of B from right)

⇒ No. of persons between A & B = 54 – (15+20) = 54 – 35 = 19

Case ii)
No. of students between two different persons = (Sum of positions of two different persons from opposite sides) – Total no. of students  – 2

E.g.1)  In a row of 54 persons, A is 35th from the left side of the row and B is 22nd from the right side of the row. Find the no. of persons sitting between A and B?

Solution: Here Sum of positions of A & B from opposite ends = 35 + 22 = 57 > Total no. of persons

∴ No. of persons between A & B = (Position of A from left + Position of B from right) – Total no. of students – 2

⇒ No. of persons between A & B = (35+22) – 54 – 2 = 57 – 54 – 2 = 1

Type 4

If total no. of students is to be calculated and positions of different persons from any side are given then it is always a case of ‘cannot be determined’ or ‘data inadequate’ or ‘can’t say’. This is because we do not know if there is overlapping or not.

For e.g. In a row Position of A from left side of the row is 18th and position of B from right side of the row is 25th. Find the total no. of students in the row?

Solution: Cannot be determined as the position of different persons is given from the same side.

Type 5

Positions of two persons is given and their positions are interchanged and after interchanging position of 1st person is given from the same side as before interchanging

Position of 2nd person from the same side as before interchanging = Position of 2nd person from the same side before interchanging + (Position of 1st person after interchanging – position of 1st person before interchanging from same side)

To find total no. of students Þ Find the person whose position from both sides can be depicted from the statement. Add both his positions from opposite ends and subtract 1.

To find no. of persons between them Þ Difference in the position of common person whose position from same side before and after interchanging is given then subtract 1

For e.g. A and B are standing in a row of persons. A is 18th from left side of the row and B is 24th from right side of the row. If they interchange their positions A becomes 31st from left. Find

i) New position of B from right side
ii) Total no. of persons
iii) No. of persons between A & B

Solution:

i) New position of B from right side = Position of B from right side before interchanging + (Position of A from left side after interchanging – Position of A from left side before interchanging)
⇒ New position of B from right side = 24 + (31 – 18) = 24 + 13 = 37th
ii) Total no. of persons = (A’s position from right before interchanging + A’s position from left before interchanging) – 1

⇒ Total no. of persons = (B’s position from right after interchanging + A’s position from left before interchanging) – 1

⇒ Total no. of persons = (24 + 31) – 1 = 55 – 1 = 54

iii) No. of persons between A & B = (Position of A from left after interchanging– Position of A from left before interchanging) – 1

⇒ No. of persons between A & B = (31 – 18) – 1 = 13 – 1 = 12

Type 6

If positions of two different persons are given from opposite sides of the row and a third person is sitting exactly in middle of the two and total no. of persons in the row is to be calculated as

i) When position of third person sitting is given from either side of row
ii) When position of third person is given from either of the two persons between whom he/she is sitting
Then find the position of the 3rd person from both sides of the row and hence find total no. of persons according to type 1

For E.g.  In a row of persons, position of A from left side of the row is 9th & position of B from right side of the row is 8th.If C is sitting just in middle of A & B and position of C from left side of the row is 15th. Find the total no. of persons in the row?

Solution: Position of C from left is 15th and A from left is 9th so there are (15 – 9 – 1 = 5) persons are sitting between A and C. As C is sitting in middle of A and B so there must also be 5 persons sitting between B and C.

Thus position of C from right = Position of B from right + 5 + 1 = 8 + 6 = 14th

Total no. of students = (Sum of positions of C from both sides – 1)

⇒ Total no. of students = (15 + 14) – 1 = 29 – 1 = 28

Type 7

In the questions where it is asked to find minimum no. of persons in a row then it is always a case of overlapping i.e. given positions of persons from either sides overlap each other.

Then, Minimum no. of persons = Sum of positions of persons from both sides – Persons between them – 2

For e.g. If the position of A from the left side of a row is 15th and position of B from the right side of a row is 19th and only 1 person is sitting in the middle of A & B. Find the minimum number of persons that can be seated in this row?

Solution: Total no. of persons = 15 + 19 – 1 – 2 = 31

Type 8

These are ordering type questions. In this type of question, it is given that there are several people living in an n-storey building. Some information will be given about the relative positions of one above or below the other. You need to find which floor each person lives on. These are almost similar to seating arrangement questions.

Blood Relations

Blood Relations Questions are very easy if you pay attention to the details. Hence, all you need is properly analyze the given information. In this topic, it is important to understand thoroughly while tackling general blood relation problems and need to understand the difference between ‘maternal’ and ‘paternal’.

Important Relations

  • Mother’s (or) father’s son – Brother
  • Mother’s (or) Father’s Daughter – Sister
  • Mother’s brother – Maternal Uncle
  • Father’s Brother – Paternal uncle
  • Mother’s (or) Father’s sister – Aunt
  • Mother’s (or) Father’s father – Grandfather
  • Mother’s (or) Father’s mother – Grandmother
  • Son’s wife – Daughter in law
  • Daughter’s husband – Son in law
  • Husband’s (or) Wife’s father – Father in law
  • Husband’s (or) Wife’s mother – Mother in law
  • Husband’s (or) Wife’s brother – Brother in law
  • Husband’s (or) Wife’s sister – Sister in law
  • Sister’s husband – Brother in law
  • Brother’s (or) Sister’s son – Nephew
  • Brother’s (or) Sister’s daughter – Niece

Remember all the relations to solve blood relations type of problems. Because without knowing relations you can’t solve the problem or mark the wrong answer. 

The easiest way to remember complex blood relations is to visualize them. Types of questions asked in exams:
  • Single Person Blood Relations
  • Mixed Blood Relations
  • Coded Blood Relations
Single Person Blood Relations question may ask in direct and Indirect form

Direct Single Person Blood Relations, in these type of question relationships are shown between 2 people. Break the given sentence at is/was/as and resolve it from the last point to is/was/as to get the easy solution for a problem.

Example: Pointing to a lady Raghav said,” She is the only daughter of the father of my sister’s brother”. How is she related to Raghav?
Solution: Break the given sentence
From the last, in the view of Raghav,
My sister’s brother – brother
Father of brother – father
Daughter of father – sister
So, that becomes “she is my sister”
So, the answer is sister.

Example: Joseph introduces Mary as the daughter of the only son of my father’s wife. How is Mary related to Joseph?
Solution: Resolving from the last , In the view of Joseph,
My father’s wife – Mother
Only son of mother – himself i.e. Joseph
Daughter of john– Daughter.
So, the answer is Daughter.

This is very important to understand the problem first, as in the question above they might ask "How is John related to Mary"

Indirect Single Person Blood Relations Question

Example: Pointing to a man in the photograph, a Woman says,” His mother’s only daughter is my mother”. How is man related to woman?
Solution : Break the sentence at is.
From the last, up to is : My mother – Woman’s mother
From the first, up to is : His mother’s only daughter – his sister
His sister = woman’s mother
So, the answer is Mother’s brother i.e. Uncle.

Mixed Blood Relations

Mutual blood relations, depend on more than two persons mentioned. These type of problems can be solved with the help of diagrams.
Follow the symbols below to avoid confusion 
 +  Male candidate
 –  Female candidate
<=> Couple
——- Same generation i.e.brother –brother (or) sister-sister (or) sister to brother
_______  Different generations i.e. father-son (or) mother-son (or) father – daughter  (or) Mother – daughter

The following list of generation might be helpful to you.
First generation: Grand father, Grand mother
Second generation: Father, Mother, Uncle, Aunt.
Third generation: Self, Sister, Brother, Sister in law, Brother in law
Fourth generation: Son, Daughter, Nephew, Niece.

Better to use the same generation in one horizontal row in the diagrams.
Example: A and B are brothers and C and D are sisters. A’s son is D’s brother. How is B related to C?
Solution: By using above symbols we can draw the below diagram. A, B are taken ‘+’ and C, D
are taken as ‘-’. It seems that A, B belongs to one generation and C,D belongs to another generation.
So, A,B are taken in one horizontal row and C,D are taken in other horizontal line.

It says that A is C’s father. Father’s brother is uncle. So, the answer is uncle.
Image(http://www.puzzles9.com/solve-blood-relations-questiions-with-aptitude-logic/)

Coded Blood Relations:

In this type of questions, relationships represented by codes and symbols like + , – , / , *. Here, you have to analyze the required relation based on the given code. In these questions also you may need diagrammatic representation of problem to solve it. Same representation used in coded blood relations as we have done in mixed blood relations.

In the coding equation better to solve the code from the last letter.
Example: If P+Q means P is the husband of Q, P/Q means P is the sister of Q, P*Q means P is the son of Q. how is D related to A in D*B+C/A?
Solution: C/A – C is sister of Q.
B+C/A – B is brother in law of A (sister’s husband – brother in law.
D*B+C/A – D is the nephew of A (sister’s husband’s son means sister’s son i.e. nephew).
So, the answer is Nephew.

Distance and Directions

Questions from distance and directions are less time-consuming. In these type of questions, there is a possibility of high accuracy. Before solving the questions consider all eight directions this will help in solving the questions easily. Direction and Distance based questions are asked in various exams including IBPS PO and IBPS Clerk have at least one question related to this topic. Direction and Distance type questions check one’s sense of directions and ability to visualize.

Important points to remember:

First, assume that you are facing North since this will simplify the sum for you.
At the time of sunrise, if a man stands facing the east, his shadow will be towards the west.
At the time of sunset, the shadow of an object is always in the east.
If a man stands facing the North, at the time of sunrise his shadow will be towards his left and at the time of sunset, it will be towards his right.
At 12:00 noon, the rays of the sun are vertically downward hence there will be no shadow.

Four main Directions - North, South, East, West



Four Cardinal Direction





Now, lets take an example

1. A man starting from his home walks 5 km towards East, and then he turns left and goes 4 km. At last, he turn to his left and walks 5 km. Now Find the distance between the man and his home and also find at which direction he is facing?

Solution:



From the above figure, we find the man is 4 km from his house and facing the West Direction.

2. Ajay started from his home and moved 5 km to reach the crossing point of the palace. In which direction was Ajay going, if the road opposite to his direction goes to the hospital. The road to the right of Ajay goes to the station. If the road which goes to station is just opposite to the road of the IT-Park, then in which direction is Ajay which leads to the IT- Park?
Sol. From the description of question, diagram comes out as follows




This shows that the road which goes towards the IT-Park is left of Ajay.

Analogy

This topic is the most scoring topic among all the topics from reasoning. Here the task is to compare to infer similarity in the components given in the question. 

Various types of relations which can be established as follows:
Type Example
Country & Currency Japan: Yen
UAE: Dinar
Quantity & Unit Energy: Joule
Power: Watt
Instrument & Measurement Ammeter: Current
Anemometer: Velocity of wind
Unit & Group Fish: Shoal
Animal & Baby Lion: Cub
Cat: Kitten
Male & Female Tiger: Tigress
Peacock: Peahen
Animal & Movement Snake: Crawl
Eagle: Swoop



Animal/thing & Sound
Cats: Meow
Bats: Screech
Elephants: Trumpet
Deer: bellow
Chimpanzee: Scream
Duck: Quack
Frog: Croak
Unit & Class Cup: Crockery
Unit & Home Dog: Kennels
Horse: Stables
Game & Venue Cricket: Pitch
Baseball: Baseball field or Diamond
Profession and Tool Author: Pen
Tailor: Needle
Doctor: Stethoscope
Product & Raw Material Oil: Seed
Metal: Ore
Unit & Part Book: Chapter
Pen: Nib
Fan: Blade
Universal Pair Chair: Table
Door: Window
Study & Topic Cardiology: Heart
Entomology: Insects

Such questions give the relationship between a pair; the first element of the second pair is given and we have to find the second element of the second pair based on similar relationship given by first pair.

Example of Analogous pair. 

1) Oasis: Sand ∷ Island: ?
a) River
b) Sea
c) Water
d) Waves

Here, the first pair is ⇒ “Oasis: Sand” and second pair is “Island:?”. And, “∷” sign means first pair and second pair share similar relationship.
‘Oasis’ is a mass of water amidst ‘Sand’ similarly ‘Island’ is a mass of land amidst ‘water’.

Note: It’d be Island: Sea had the first pair been Oasis: Desert. We’re given the name of thing desert is made of i.e. Sand. So, we’ll use the name of thing Sea is made of i.e. Water.

Classification

Questions from classification are basically odd man out. For this make sure your vocabulary is good enough because you will have to differentiate between the given concepts. In this topic, the candidate is able to apply his thinking ability properly and can easily score well.

‘Classify’ means to assign some particular characteristic to the various member/part of the group and identify them on the basis of that particular characteristics only. Classification questions aim to test the skills of a candidate in determining the features of various things and candidate has to answer which one is odd-one from the group of 4 options. The odd-one option shouldn’t possess the skill which must be common among other four options.

Questions are really scoring as they require minimum calculations (if verbal). All we have to do is identify the common feature in the 3 options. There can be various types of patterns which can be found in Classification questions.
Some of those patterns are:

This common feature must be unique, ascertainable, non-imaginary and must not be present in odd-one option. While solving these questions, one should have basic awareness about general knowledge including Science, Geography, History, Mathematics etc.

For example:

a) Lion: Roar
b) Snake: Hiss
c) Frog: Bleat
d)  Bees: hum

Answer: In all the pairs, the second word is the sound made by the animal. But in the pair of frog: bleat, bleat is the sound made by sheep and not by frogs.

Arrangement & Pattern, Double Lineup, Scheduling, Series

For this topic all you need is Practice. Practice the questions as much as you can. Sometimes, questions from this topic can be quite time-consuming. Therefore, have a proper time management strategy. Practice clean-charting and a step-by-step methodology for all these questions. It is adviced, candidates should attempt those questions first they are familiar with because with this time will be saved.

Data Sufficiency

In Data sufficiency questions, accuracy level is moderate. And you need intense practice in this topic. Questions from this topic asked from Ordering and Ranking, Blood Relations, Coding in Fictitious Language, Circular Arrangements, Directions & Distances, Ages & Birth-dates.

Tricks to solve Reasoning- If the candidate will follow the proper way to solve IBPS logical questions and right formula to address a problem of logical reasoning test and numerical reasoning test then they can complete the IBPS Exam in a given period.

So, first properly learn the basic formulas and methods to solve the questions otherwise your most of the time spent in calculations.

Here are the essential tips to solve the reasoning questions

- Before answering any question, must read and understand the question carefully as most of the answers hidden in the problem.
- Divided your question time topic wise
- Attempt those issues first which are easy and less time-consuming such as Classification/ Odd pair, Series Completion/ Analogy, Direction based tests/ Direction Sense Test, Number, Ranking & Time, Sequence Test, Alphabet Test/ Dictionary, etc.
- After this, turns towards the Medium Difficulty Level Questions such as Syllogisms, Inequalities, Blood Relations, Coding-Decoding, Data Sufficiency, etc.
- At last, move to the time-consuming complex questions like Seating Arrangement, Complex Puzzle, Floor Puzzle, Input-Output Machine, etc. Logical reasoning questions contained with Data / Diagram, which is the central part of that question so take it seriously.
- To solve path type questions, knowledge of Direction (East, West, North, and South) is most important.
- Candidate should be familiar with sequence and number position of alphabets from A to Z.
- Make short notes for IBPS exam reasoning topics this is one of my best step for IBPS bank exam reasoning preparation. Also, write down all necessary formulas on a paper for last time revision.
- Imagine the item in a 3D way like dice and paper collapsing. This will help in solving ibps logical reasoning problems questions.
- Try to answer more and more questions on mathematics problems as this practice will save your time in the exam.
- Last, but the most important is to improve your reasoning skills via practice as much as you can. 

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